The chairman thinking, you should be doing something biomedical. [Slide text: Juncos sing with higher minimum frequency in the city; Photos: Person in a park, a junco, a city bus, a car, and a person on a cell phone]. And just as an insert, I saw today that we have many fewer indigo buntings than we did 50 years ago. And someone else might say, oh, I don’t think so. Stable isotopes are hydrogen isotopes that reflect what the hydrogen ratio is in water that a bird is drinking when it grows its feathers. I was an animal behavior bird student in 1972, I guess, and I was studying for my prelims. [Graphs: Also true for females: ovary mass increases earlier in residents and relates to latitude of origin in migrants- Ovary mass (mg) in Migrants and Residents, and Hydrogen isotope vs. Ovary mass]. Watch for a small bird with a dark sooty hood that covers its head and chest, a grey-brown back, and a white belly. The Cornell folks call juncos the “snowbirds of the middle latitudes.” That is, they migrate south from Canada shortly before winter, but go no farther than Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and New York. The winter buntings are both still brown, while all the rest are now blue]. And here’s a pink side junco. Many migrate hundreds or thousands of miles. Much, much respected man. How much time am I allowed? I’m headed off to Wyoming. Somebody I was talking with– but at the time, there hadn’t been any juncos breeding. What Foods Do They Eat? So he took the juncos that he caught in Canada into his backyard and had a garage like situation. – We can learn a lot about beauty and nature from the junco. A separate research paper estimates that the junco population could actually be as high as 630 million. So yes, it may look like they’re in a few more plantings on the campus than they are in the rural setting, but I don’t think that is an indicator of their having a different view of what makes a good nest site, because they’re quite diverse in their nest site choices– like bike helmets. Do Juncos Migrate? And this is not going to be satisfying answer when we get to the end, because we don’t know it yet enough. You don’t have a big cloacal protuberance if you don’t have a big gonad, and this is comparing cloacal protuberance of residents in the red and migrants in the blue in birds that were held in side by side cages indoors– same day length, same food– responding very differently as the day is increased in length over the spring. So I don’t think we thought that until we had the tools, maybe, to see. Certainly when it comes to birds, he would have been the premier evolutionary biologist. Simon and Schuster Inc., New York, USA. Juncos are right now in the process of spreading to a whole lot of places. You can attract juncos to your yard by feeding a seed blend containing millet and hulled sunflower seeds. So we capture them in Virginia. – We can learn a lot about sex, food, and death. But it doesn’t suggest a categorical difference, like residents are this way and migrants are that way in an area that’s [INAUDIBLE]. And then you go, well, what kind of signal could be that? And also, because I know I’m at Cornell, I am not the only person that heard that we have three billion fewer birds in the world than we did in 1970, when I was a graduate student. (2001). Ellen Ketterson: So, my brother is 11 years older than I am, and, when I was three or four, he was a boy scout, and he was earning a badge on bird identification. And this movie succeeded in making extraordinary the ordinary junco. In flight, they flap continuously and pump their tails so the white outer tail feathers flash; flight is very agile as the bird maneuvers through its tangled environs. I’ve got my rate of change. [Ellen looks through binoculars. These are some comparisons of the ovary mass of female residents and female migrants in Virginia. One reason may be the mate choice that we just had a chance to observe. [14] Northern birds migrate further south, arriving in their winter quarters between mid-September and November and leaving to breed from mid-March onwards, with almost all of them gone by the end of April or so. Found in woods, openings in woods, fields, roadsides, and yards. In winter, juncos are familiar in and around towns, and in many places are the most common birds at feeders. Maybe the mate choice that we saw early in my little talk here gave rise to the opportunity to see this separation in the different types. Occasionally unmarked. The female weaves the nest of grasses and pine needles in a depression on the ground or on a rock or other ledge. Nothing. The Cornell Lab will send you updates about birds, birding, and opportunities to help bird conservation. Females build the nests, using her beak to weave together materials and her body to give the nest its shape. But there was a fair bit of overlap. According to Project FeederWatch, a Cornell project, junco birds are sighted at more winter feeders around North America than any other bird. This species often comes to bird feeders. [Slide text: Juncos have a rich scientific history. These birds will eat millet, sunflower chips, cracked corn, and Bark Butter® Bits. Keep learning, participate in group conversations. After emailing some photos to Brady, we soon had our answer. So because we’ve only asked about male choice for females of the two different types. So perhaps the rapid change in the environment that occurred over those 14,000 years gave rise to a situation where some were migrating and some weren’t, and some were breeding at one time of the year and others were not, and that natural selection played a role in giving rise to the differences between these groups. During winter and on migration they use a wider variety of habitats including open woodlands, fields, roadsides, parks, and gardens.Back to top, Dark-eyed Juncos are primarily seed-eaters, with seeds of chickweed, buckwheat, lamb’s quarters, sorrel, and the like making up about 75% of their year-round diet. The young leave the nest in 9-12 days. It happens in Colorado, where there are different subspecies, where they winter together– pink sided, gray heads, white winged juncos, Oregon juncos, slate color juncos all wintering together. I don’t think it’s the only cool result, but I think it is a cool result, which is what’s being plotted here. And another possibility may be when they reproduce, or whether they migrate. Now, with new sequencing technologies, what we’re being able to do is sort through more and more of that haystack to find the needle. [11] Oregon dark-eyed juncos are less commonly known as brown-backed dark-eyed juncos. But in any case, I love this bird. But it’s adjusting its reproductive development to its destination. She has won a whole panel of awards. Yes? – [Narrator] In 2012, biologists from around the world met at Indiana University to chart the course of future research on the junco. In winter over much of the continent, flocks of Juncos can be found around woodland edges and suburban yards, feeding on the ground, making ticking calls as they fly up into the bushes. And then these plumage differences arise, and females show a preference that becomes ingrained in one breeding population or another. Male juncos tend to spend the winter farther north in order to shorten their spring migration and thus gain the advantage of arriving first at prime breeding territories. [Image: Additional juncos show up and they start singing]. Yes. The most common color form is the slate-colored junco. Sauer, J. R., D. K. Niven, J. E. Hines, D. J. Ziolkowski Jr., K. L. Pardieck, J. E. Fallon, and W. A. I’ll show you in a second. [Slide text: Juncos differ from place to place, Image: Map of North America with regions labeled showing different junco plumages]. And, just as I do with my family, wanting to use whatever skills or talents I have to keep them safe. ELLEN KETTERSON: Right. And we know there’s geographic variation among species in when various things happen. Sure. [14] For example, in the Sierra Nevada of eastern California, J. hymealis populations will migrate to winter ranges 5,000–7,000 feet (1,500–2,100 m) lower than their summer range. Grindstaff JL, Buerkle CA, Casto JM, Nolan V & Ketterson ED. [Slide text: Reduced territorial aggression in city males; Photo: Two juncos fighting in flight]. And in fact, Borja Mila, my colleague, says that’s it, Ellen. Insects are an important part of the diet during breeding season when the juncos need extra protein for their growing young. It is light to dark gray all over except for its belly and the two to three outermost feathers on each side of the tail, which are white. And we’ve been focusing on the visual differences, but– oh, that’s Pamela Yeh. “No, it wasn’t a chickadee. And I try to pass that along, with those same commitments to objectivity and rigor and expanded view of what our responsibilities are.


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