(i) CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O Which of the following are alkenes ? Because of the delocalization of one of the outer electrons of each atom to form a π-cloud, graphite conducts electricity, but only in the plane of each covalently bonded sheet. Answer: Answer: We recommend you use a larger device to draw your structure. (a) Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) Both soap and detergent are some type of salts. Take the alphabetical order into consideration; that is, after applying the first two rules given above, make sure that your substitutes and/or functional groups are written in alphabetical order. (iii) CH3COCH3 In a micele, the soap molecules are arranged radially, with the hydrocarbon and directed towards the centre and the ionic end directed outwards. (ii) It is phenomenon in which compounds have the same molecular formula but different structural formula. Answer: Answer: (ii) Tetravalency: Since carbon has a balency of 4, it is capable of bonding with four other atoms of carbon or atoms of elements like oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine, etc. Soap should not contain more than 10% of water. Because the two substitutes are identical, neither takes alphabetical precedence with respect to numbering the carbons. Name the procss and write the reaction involved. If you were to check the given structure and find 11 carbon atoms, you would know that you had made a mistake. e.g., [72][73], There are 15 known isotopes of carbon and the shortest-lived of these is 8C which decays through proton emission and alpha decay and has a half-life of 1.98739 × 10−21 s.[74] The exotic 19C exhibits a nuclear halo, which means its radius is appreciably larger than would be expected if the nucleus were a sphere of constant density.[75]. Good quality flakes can be processed into expandable graphite for many uses, such as flame retardants. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. [95] In nature, the iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMoco) responsible for microbial nitrogen fixation likewise has an octahedral carbon center (formally a carbide, C(-IV)) bonded to six iron atoms. (iii) C2H5OH + Na → (ii) Combustion : Organic compounds burn in oxygen and yield CO2 and water vapours. When united with hydrogen, it forms various hydrocarbons that are important to industry as refrigerants, lubricants, solvents, as chemical feedstock for the manufacture of plastics and petrochemicals, and as fossil fuels. (a) C3 – C2 – OH It's valency is "4" so you have to take it into account and then write formula accordingly as in methane CH4 four hydrogens attached with one carbon through single covalent bonds, in "CO2" as carbon makes double bond with 2 oxygen atoms i.e O=C=O so just go on with its valency satisfaction. CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C3H6 and C3H8. (i) open chain, Answer: Explain saponification by giving chemical equations. (iv) It is used in low temperature thermometers. The name of this molecule is thus: 2,5-dimethyloctane. It does not react with sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, chlorine or any alkalis. For example, it can form the nitride cyanogen molecule ((CN)2), similar to diatomic halides. (a) –OH Hydroxyl/Alcohol Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations. Carbon exhibits catenation much more than silicon or any other element due to its smaller size which makes the C—C bonds strong while the Si—Si bonds are comparatively weaker due to its large size. Describe an activity to show esterification. draw the Kekulé, condensed or shorthand structure of an alkane, given its IUPAC name. The cation [(Ph3PAu)6C]2+ contains an octahedral carbon bound to six phosphine-gold fragments. Diamond is the best known naturally occurring, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 19:20. It also affects the optic nerve, causes blindness. Find and name the longest continuous carbon chain. In nuclear applications where graphite is used as a neutron moderator, accumulation of Wigner energy followed by a sudden, spontaneous release may occur. Answer: While a large trade in both types of diamonds exists, the two markets function dramatically differently. When this ester is heated in the presence of sodium hydroxide solution, it changes into an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. Remember that every substituent must have a number, and do not forget the prefixes: di, tri, tetra, etc. This carbyne is of considerable interest to nanotechnology as its Young's modulus is 40 times that of the hardest known material – diamond. Commercially valuable carbon polymers of animal origin include wool, cashmere and silk. Justify your answer. Question 26. [62], Carbon is a constituent (about 12% by mass) of the very large masses of carbonate rock (limestone, dolomite, marble and so on). (i) 1-chloropropane H2SO4 in this reaction. For this reason, carbon has often been referred to as the "king of the elements". ‘X’is ethanoic acid (an organic acid). Although these hydrocarbons have no functional groups, they constitute the framework on which functional groups are located in other classes of compounds, and provide an ideal starting point for studying and naming organic compounds. What is the need to denature alcohol ? If we number the chain from the right, chlorine, the methyl group and bromine would occupy the second, third and sixth positions, respectively, which is illustrated in the first drawing below. Each compound of the homologous series is called homolog of each other. Give the names and structure of (a) carboxylic acid, (b) alcohol and (c) the compound X. It bonds readily with other small atoms, including other carbon atoms, and is capable of forming multiple stable covalent bonds with suitable multivalent atoms. Question 30. What type of bond exists in (i) CCI4, (ii) CaCl2 ? Large accumulations of coal, which have remained inert for hundreds of millions of years in the absence of oxygen, may spontaneously combust when exposed to air in coal mine waste tips, ship cargo holds and coal bunkers,[129][130] and storage dumps. Question 17. Certain phosphate additives are added to detrgents which form a thick green scum over the river water and harm the animal life in the river. Esterification: A process in which an alcohol and a carboxylic acid react in the presence of conc. C2H4 and C3H6 are alkenes. Industrial diamonds are valued mostly for their hardness and heat conductivity, with the gemological qualities of clarity and color being mostly irrelevant. Which of the following formulae represents a saturated hydrocarbon ? (i) CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COO–Na+ + H2O [58], Carbon is also found in methane hydrates in polar regions and under the seas. Answer: Coke is used to reduce iron ore into iron (smelting). Denatured alcohol is ethyl alcohol which has been made unfit for drinking purposes by adding poisonous substances like methanol, pyridine, copper sulphate, etc. (i) –OH How does carbon attain a stable electronic configuration ? Organic compounds containing bonds to metal are known as organometallic compounds (see below). (a) Ethanol Coal is very rich in carbon (anthracite contains 92–98%)[63] and is the largest commercial source of mineral carbon, accounting for 4,000 gigatonnes or 80% of fossil fuel.[64]. Answer: Carbon black is also used as a filler in rubber products such as tyres and in plastic compounds. [37], Commercially viable natural deposits of graphite occur in many parts of the world, but the most important sources economically are in China, India, Brazil and North Korea. [51][78] The Solar System is one such star system with an abundance of carbon, enabling the existence of life as we know it. Hydrocarbon Series: General formula for homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons is Cn H2n+2. Glycerol is obtained as a by-product in this reaction. Choose the longest, most substituted carbon chain containing a functional group. Methanol is oxidised to methal in the liver. Vein or lump graphite is the rarest, most valuable, and highest quality type of natural graphite. Products : Ethanol and ethanoic acid Question 41. ‘X’ → CH3COOH Question 30. Question 28. Carbon has 4 electrons in its outermost shell, and needs to gain or lose 4 electrons to attain noble gas configuration. Intake of small quantity of methanol can be lethal. Unlike precious metals such as gold or platinum, gem diamonds do not trade as a commodity: there is a substantial mark-up in the sale of diamonds, and there is not a very active market for resale of diamonds. The bottom left corner of the phase diagram for carbon has not been scrutinized experimentally. The difference in the molecular masses of any two adjacent homologous or members is 14 u. Answer: (ii). Write the chemical equation for the reaction and write the chemical name of the product formed. The most prominent oxide is carbon dioxide (CO2). For other uses, see, "Element 6" redirects here. Write physical properties of ethanol. Diamonds were known probably as early as 2500 BCE in China, while carbon in the form of charcoal was made around Roman times by the same chemistry as it is today, by heating wood in a pyramid covered with clay to exclude air. (a) Compounds of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons.


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